Tent caterpillars invade area
It's that time of year again, the notorious forest tent caterpillar (FTC), also known as the army worm, is raining from the trees!
One caller said there were so many, that when she stood under her tree she could actually hear these fuzzy worms munching up above! Yuck!
What are these little buggers, and how can we control them? Here are the facts:
These caterpillars live throughout the U.S., and nosh on hardwood trees like balsam poplar, basswood, oaks, ashes, birches, alder, fruit trees, and their favorite: quaking aspen.
When they are done munching on trees, they often move to other vegetation, including vegetables, small fruits and nursery crops.
They rarely eat red maples or conifers, such as pine and spruce.
FTCs appear in mid May when new leaves are sprouting. They feast until late June, when they begin to spin their cocoons.
Moths emerge two weeks later and lay from 100-350 eggs in their short, five-day lifespan. These eggs over-winter in the trees to hatch the following spring.
The good news: outbreaks of FTC are cyclical, lasting three to six years, and Minnesota has only had five major outbreaks since 1933.
Although they are a nuisance, FTCs are rarely responsible for the death of trees. However, repeat infestations (three years or more) can slow down a tree's growth.
Trees suffering from drought-related stress or disease are much less tolerant of the defoliation caused by these worms, and will succumb much more rapidly to an infestation.
Widespread spraying of forests and public lands may kill this year's FTC, but is an ineffective way to control future populations. (Moths from un-treated areas fly into treated areas and lay their eggs for next spring's generation.)
What can you do if you just can't live with these pests in your trees?
Remove and destroy over-wintering egg masses from the branches of small trees (they look like brown bubble wrap).
Use a stiff broom to brush caterpillars off infested areas, or use a strong spray of water to knock nests off structures and trees.
Insecticides are effective early, when FTCs are small (no more than an inch). BT is an excellent insecticidal option that doesn't kill beneficial insects.
Other beneficial safe products include insecticidal soap, spinosad (Conserve), and azadirachtin (Azatin). Additional insecticides for home use include carbaryl (Sevin), Malathion, acephate (Orthene), and permethrin.
Additional early measures include using a product like Tanglefoot on the trunks of shrubs and trees, wrapping the trunk of the tree with oil coated plastic wrap (oil side out) or hand picking caterpillars off plants and putting them in soapy water to kill them.
Remember, these measures will kill some of this year's worms, and will protect trees already under stress, but will do little to decrease next year's population.